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Notes from Limmud 2005

Judaeo-Spanish Poetry and Song

Sharonah Fredrick

After the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and the persecution of those that remained secretly Jewish by the Inquisition, a type of music called the Romancero survived in Latin America, but died in Spain because by the eighteenth century there were no longer any Crypto-Jews in Spain. (A few survived into the twenty-first century in Portugal [some of whom I was privileged to meet on my Berlin trip, now rejoining the Jewish fold under Masorti Olami].)

Many of the Sephardim went to South America, which was then under Spanish control. The Inquisition had seats in Lima, Peru, Mexico City and Santo Domingo (on the island of Hispaniola). (They also did in Brazil, but, being a Portuguese colony, that's outside of the scope of this talk.) However, Latin America is big, and the distances were too big to be effectively policed. The Inquisition did send spies and malsinar out, but it could not control these vast areas.

As a result, Crypto-Jewish communities started springing up all through Argentina, particularly along the border with Chile - in the moutains. The same happened in the Peruvian Andes.

Whilst there were autos da fé in Peru, the Inquisition wildly overestimated the number of Jews; at the end of the seventeenth century they estimated over 100k; at its highest the community numbered no more than 50k.

A song which died out in Spain but was preserved in Latin America is the most well-known song in Sephardi culture: Avraham Avinu. It is in Ladino. Ladino is not like Yiddish; it's much purer Spanish, with only 5% of Hebrew and Arabic loan-words. It's the dialect spoken in Andalucia at the time of the Expulsion.

The words shows a profound influence from the Catholic Church; the music a profound influence from Muslim, Moroccan music. (Unlike other Arabic melodies, Moroccan music uses more major scales, and is easier on western ears.)

When King Nimrod went out into the countryside
He looked in the sky in the Jewish neighbourhood [juderia]
He saw a sacred light coming out of the Jewish quarter
Our father Avraham Avinu was about to be born.

Avraham Avinu, beloved father
Avraham Avinu, light of Israel
Avraham Avinu, blessed father
Avraham Avinu, light of Israel

The wife of Terach was walking around pregnant
She wandered from cave to cave
Why is your face so changed?
Because Avraham Avinu is about to be born.


Cuando el rey Nimrod al campo salia
Mirava en el cielo y en la estreyeria
Vido una luz santa en la juderia
Que havia de nacer Avraham avinu

Avraham avinu padre querido
Padre bendicho luz de Israel
Avraham avinu padre querido
Padre bendicho luz de Israel

La mujer de Terah quedo prenada
E de dia en dia el la preguntaba:
¿De que tenes la cara tan demudada?
Ella ya sabia el bien que tenia.


(Okay, so the version I googled in Spanish doesn't have the same words as the Los Desterrados one Dr Fredrick translated. I don't speak Spanish; I couldn't take the lyrics down at the speed she read them.)

The Jews had to emphasis a figure in contradistinction to Jesus. When you are a small oppressed community, one of the most effective ways to do that was to underline the parallels between your religion and the dominant religion. You have Jesus, we have Abraham.

The instrumentation includes an oud. The English word "lute" comes from "al-oud"; it's also the origin of the guitar. [Huh, what about the cithara of Graeco-Roman culture? Maybe the oud is the proximate ancestor for the instrument rather than the word? Anyone help me out here?] It has from seven up to twenty-four strings, and a big body. The classic instrument was brought from Morocco into Spain when they invaded in 711. Muslim music remains the basis of Sephardi music.

Why did the Sephardim go to Latin America when there were so many Muslim countries willing to take them in - and did do so. Answer: There was a strong attachment to Spain regardless of all the bad things it did to them. (Of which Sharonah Fredrick herself is a good example!)

The singing in the Los Desterrados version Dr Fredrick played to us of this song is male voices only; this is unusual in Sephardic music. Most of the songs were sung in the home, so were usually, but not enclusively, sung by women.

The style of singing, with an emotional and almost hoarse voice, goes back to old Spain: "unaccompanied Flamenco". Most true Flamenco songs (as opposed to pop-culture Flamenco-derivative) are songs of protest. It also shows the influence of Arabic ululation.

The makam [mode] used does not finish on the octave above the start note; this adds flexibility, because it allows mixing of major and minor scales. [I might post some notes from Yoel Ben-Simhon's session on Moroccan Jewish music at some point.]

There is also choral singing, with palmoteando - rapid clapping - a Flamenco motive, derived from a Gypsy tradition.

The Gypsies were kicked out of Spain at the same time as the Jews and the Muslims. They too were a despised religious minority. Many fled to Argentina, where they influenced the Jews. They were allowed back in Spain after the collapse of the Inquisition in the nineteenth century.

"Open your closed door" was not a beloved song of the religious establishment, who saw the title was a sexual reference.

The tradition of love songs in Spanish Jewish music goes back to at least the twelfth century, when Jewish composers in Spain begin to experiment with secular themes. These were often interpolated into the prayer service, adopted and adapted [i.e. filked?] into the prayer mode. At this time, the rabbinical councils had no control over what went on in these tiny communities, because officially they did not exist.

There was also much less inhibition to discuss romantic and sexual themes on the part of the community. When you're leaving a double life as a Crypto-Jew, your family is manoeuvring so you won't be found out. This could mean all kind of weird changes, such as your wife sometimes having to adopt a man's role. Also, many of the martyrs of the Inquisition were woman. Seeing women burned brought home that women were not protected, and being not protected they were more forthright.

When news of the blood libel, which myth had begun in Norwich, spread to Spain, and aided the first pogrom in Toledo, there was another factor in the background which led to this, which was a love affair that had taken place between a Jewish woman, Rebecca, and a non-Jew, Diego. At that point it was very common for the non-Jew to convert in such situations. When the Inquisition started prosecuting people for judaising, part of the reason for the paranoia was because there were quite a few people who had converted for this reason.

According to Sephardi folk-myth (which may be accurate), Rebecca spurned Diego; he got very angry and wanted to take revenge, and decided to spread, in Toledo, the rumour of what the Jews did in Norwich; and it was this that led to the pogrom.

The Jewish woman in Spanish culture is viewed as very attractive, but also rather vampirical. In the rural Appalachian mountains in North America, much English, Scottish and Irish folklore is maintained from the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. A song was discovered from there, dating from the early seventeenth century in England - as evidenced from its also being found on an old MS in the Bodleian Library - called "Don't go into the Jewess's room", which talked about how she would seduce you and suck your blood. [We hope this song is no longer sung in the rural Appalachians today...]

Such images of the Jewish woman permeated a lot of Jewish [?] folklore at the time. The Inquisition - as very much distinct from the Jesuits, indeed, Antonio da Verra challenged the Vatican and Madrid strongly on the issue of the Inquisition - were trying to staunch any example of sensuality, but this of course pretty much had the reverse effect. By forbidding fornication, it made people interested in sex, and there was a flourishing of love music in both the Jewish and non-Jewish music in Latin America.

Open your closed door
In your balcony there is no light
Love flies towards you
Come with me, my rose, and let us leave from here

I fell in love with your beauty
just as G-d had made you
Your beauty is pure
Come, my love, and let's go from here.

Avre tu puerta cerrada,
qu´en tu balcòn luz no hay
el amor a ti te vela,
partemos Rosa, partemos de aqui.

Yo demandi por la tu hermozura,
como te la dio el Dio
la hermozura tuya es pura,
la meresco solo yo.

This is very much a song from after the exile from Spain: it was born in the Spanish diaspora; where, Dr Fredrick does not know. Though sung all over Latin America, it was also very popular in Salonica, and was known in Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria.

This has more Spanish influence in the melody line, with the guitar (or in its Greek version the bouzouki) replacing the oud.

The song also involves the violin, which came from Gypsy music.

Ocho candelicas (Eight Little Candles)

Beautiful Chanukkah is here
Eight candles for me.

One candle, two candles, three candles
Four candles, five candles,
Six candles, seven candles, eight candles for me.

Many parties I will give
With happiness and pleasure.


Little pies I will eat
With almonds and honey.


Hanukah linda sta aqui, ocho kandelas para mi,
Hanukah linda sta aqui, ocho kandelas para mi.

Una kandelika, dos kandelikas, tres kandelikas,
kuatro kandelikas, sintyu kandelikas,
seysh kandelikas, siete kandelikas, ocho kandelikas para mi.

Muchas fiestas vo fazer, con alegrias i plazer.
Muchas fiestas vo fazer, con alegrias i plazer.


Los pastelikas vo kumer, con almendrikas i la miel
Los pastelikas vo kumer, con almendrikas i la miel


The Jews obviously could not celebrate Chanukah overtly. One of the things they did was to use a round ceramic bowl with a covering, with a little slit in the top: you could put a candle inside, but it would not be visible from the outside. This was used as a menorah substitute and has been found across Latin America. Many modern Mexican and Texan Crypto-Jews (Texas having originally been part of New Spain) now reconverting to Judaism (under Masorti) have preserved these, which have been in their families since the seventeenth century, when there was a wave of Crypto-Jews emigrating to Latin America.

Another song also found in Salonica and Latin America: the USAn southwest and Mexico. Evidently there were Jews going back and forth between Latin America and the Ottoman Empire. If you were a declared, open, Jew the Inquisition could not touch you. Spain denied access to all such... but coima, bribery, quite happily got around that.

The Anglo-Jewish community was semi-legalised under Cromwell, but how did it get that status? Antonio de Montesinos, a Portuguese Jew based in Holland travelled around Latin America and did something very risky. Using the legal loophole referred to above, he disembarked at Lima and started proclaiming loudly, "Soy Judeo". He got imprisoned by the Inquisition and deported from Peru to the northern Andes in Ecuador: They expected he was going to die there. But he didn't, and went on to make friends with the local Jawar Indians. He got arrested, thrown out and deported eighteen times before the Inquisition deported him to Portugal, where his family was originally from. This was very dangerous, but by that stage he was so famous they couldn't touch him, and deported him back to the Netherlands, after he had spent a year and a half away.

He then wrote a book claiming to have found one of the ten lost tribes in Ecuador. He knew this was nonsense, but was doing it to irk the Inquisition.

R. Menasse ben Israel (in the Netherlands) read this, knew it was a forgery - we know this from his diaries - but decided to send it to Oliver Cromwell, who believed that when the Jews were scattered to the corners of the Earth [including England, interpreting Angleterre as "corner of the Earth"], the Second Coming of Jesus would happen.

Cromwell now believed that there were Jews in Latin America, semi-legalised the status of Jews in England, and legalised immigration of Jews into England. And the rest, as they say, is history.


Date: 2006-01-07 10:25 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] curious-reader.livejournal.com
Very interesting seminar. Where did you the Spanish text from? Did you get sheets with it from Limmud? The translation seem to be all right for me. I had Spanish at school. I cannot say if every word is right but I remember some of them. I heard the Chanuka song at children's party where I went with snjstar. We just did not expect it was just for children.
Now some questions for you. Where is Salonica? What is the Ottoman Empire? (Sounds German to me.) When did the Jews went to England? Did Cromwell something horrible to the Jews? According to your notes he obviously had a very anti-view.

Re: interesting

Date: 2006-01-07 10:42 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] lethargic-man.livejournal.com
Nope; I googled for it.

Salonica is in Greece. In ancient times it was called Thessalonika; in modern Greek, Thessaloniki. The Ottoman Empire was the Turkish empire (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_Empire) which then ruled Greece. It's not German; it's an anglicisation of the name of its founder, Osman.

The Jews were let into England by Oliver Cromwell, 366 years after they had been expelled by Edward I, 350 years ago, in 1656; you'll be seeing 350 anniversary celebrations this year, I would imagine. As for anti-view, he didn't have an anti-anything view (apart from anti-monarchy and anti-High Church). He was a friend to the Jews.

Re: interesting

Date: 2006-01-12 08:44 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] curious-reader.livejournal.com
OK, I just misunderstood. I thought you meant Oliver Cromwell was not friendly to the Jews.

a poetry sefardi which persists in Marroc

Date: 2006-02-15 01:45 pm (UTC)
From: (Anonymous)
Really interesting, what you write about the sefardis in Latin America - I didn´t knew that so much of them went to South America - I thought most went to Turky, Greece, Bulgaria, Portugal and above all to Marrocco.

I found this poetry sefardí, which persists in Marroco and it can also be sung, it was printed in the XVI. century and was cited by important spanish authors from the Siglo de Oro such as, for example, the comedian - writer "Lope de Vega".

"Cuando yo nací nació la tristura.
Parióme mi madre en una noche oscura,
ni gallo cantaba ni perro ladraba
sino aguilía negras voces daba.

Parióme mi madre, crióme mi tía
con yerbas del campo hizo cama y cuna,
pusome pañales y echome la cuna
por nombre me puso niña sin fortuna.

En aquel navío mi bien se embarcó,
alzara las velas, se fue y me dejó,
vicios y regalos con él los llevó.

Ya crecen las yerbas y dan de color,
este mi corazón vive con dolor.
Ya crecen las hierbas y dan de morado,
este mi corazón vive con cuidado.

Ya crecen las hierbas y dan de amarillo,
este mi corazón vive con suspiros.
Ya crecen las yerbas y dan de verdura,
este mi corazón vive con tristura.

Ansias y cuidados a mí me dejó
mi bien y no mal, mi cirio pascual,
mi antorcha encendida, semana y sabbat."

When I was born, sadness was born.
beard by my mother in a dark night.
No cock was crawing, no dog was barking,
only an eagle gave dark voices.

Beard by my mother, reared by my aunt,
with grasses of county she made my bed and my cradle
she clothed me with diapers and laid me down in the cradle,
she gave me the name: girl without fortune.

With this ship my weal was gone,
with all sails set,
it went away and left me,
vices and gifts it took away.

The grasses are growing already and
are giving color
this my heart is living in pain.

The grasses are growing already and
are giving purple,
this my heart is living in caution.

The grasses are growing already and
are giving yellow,
this my heart is living in sighes.

The grasses are growing already and
are giving green,
this my heart is living in sadness.

Fear and caution left me my good and not bad, my
cirio pascual,
my lightened torch,
week and sabbat.

This traduction is not really good, I´m sorry.

Another question: In spain there is this legend: nobody knows whether it is true or not:
Some people say Cervantes was descencdent of sefardies, is this true???


Re: a poetry sefardi which persists in Marroc

Date: 2006-02-15 02:25 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] lethargic-man.livejournal.com
Hello, Gitana (name or description?), thanks for your comment, and your song.

I think Dr Fredrick was focusing on the Sephardi diaspora in Latin America rather than Europe simply because it was an area of interest of hers. The European diaspora is, as you say, well-known, but the importance of the Latin American diaspora is shown by the fact it's the source of today's Spanish community, who have come back after the Jews were readmitted to Spain.

As for Cervantes being the descendant of Sephardim, I've not heard of that beforehand. Wikipedia (which can't be entirely trusted) says (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miguel_de_Cervantes) "Cervantes's mother seems to have been a descendant of Jewish converts to Christianity", but someone asks in the discussion section (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talk:Miguel_de_Cervantes) queries there is any evidence for this. The 1911 edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica does not mention (http://79.1911encyclopedia.org/C/CE/CERVANTES.htm) the claim; and there's no mention of it (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/search_results.jsp?searchType=1&pageNum=1&search=cervantes&x=0&y=0&searchOpt=0) in the Jewish Encylopedia at all.

I'll have a look in my 2002 Encyclopaedia Britannica and Encyclopaedia Judaica at home when I get around to it. :o)

Re: a poetry sefardi which persists in Marroc

Date: 2007-03-02 09:25 pm (UTC)
From: (Anonymous)
I am deeply interested in Sephardi music, I practise singing ;-)
Where could I find a sample of this song, or notes or something very similar to the song in question?
Thanks in advance for any hints,
Here's my e-mail:

Re: a poetry sefardi which persists in Marroc

Date: 2006-02-19 05:29 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] lethargic-man.livejournal.com
Here we go. The Encyclopaedia Judaica says:
Don Quixote has been used to support theories of its author's New Christian origin and sympathies. The Spanish critic Américo Castro, has suggested that Don Quixote could only be the work of a New Christian, living on the periphery of Spanish society. The novelist's father, Rodrigo de Cervantes, was a surgeon (a profession adopted by many Conversos). Miguel de Cervantes himself once had a mistress, Ana Franca de Rojas, who was a descendant of Fernando de Rojas, the Converso author of the Celestina. Another factor cited is Cervantes' aversion to intolerance and to distinctions between "Old" and "New" Christians. In his plays Los baños de Argel and La gran sultana he presents both Christian and Jewish points of view on religion. In Los alcaldes de Daganzo Cervantes sarcastically derides the idea that limpieza (purity of descent) should be the prime qualification for holding office. While Sancho Panza is vocal about his limpieza (Don Quixote, 1, ch. 21; 2, ch. 4) and his dislike of Jews (2, ch. 8), Don Quixote himself is reticent about his background. Cervantes was influenced by the Dialoghi d'amore of Leone Ebreo (Judah Abrabanel) and when he writes in Don Quixote (1, ch. 9) about "a better and older language [than Arabic]," he is presumably referring to the Hebrew language. Dominique Aubier, a Catholic convert to Judaism, sees Don Quixote as "the standard-bearer of Jewish revolt in the cause of free expression and against the persecution of the Inquisition." On the basis of Jewish mystical sources she has reinterpreted the novel symbolically as a three-sided discussion involving science, Judeo-Christianity, and the Kabbalah.
So, there (and in my previous post) is the evidence; draw your own conclusions. :o)

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Задержки при работе не превышают нескольких секунд благодаря тому, который Вашему компьютеру не требуется устанавливать десятки соединений с другими странами - достаточно подключиться к ближайшему IRC серверу. Будто свободно выговаривать, использование IRC ограничено как Вашим воображением.

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Date: 2011-07-23 11:59 am (UTC)
From: (Anonymous)

Доски бесплатных объявлений предлагают Вам уникальную возможность делать покупки без лишних затрат и заключать выгодные сделки, размещая объявления о продаже или услугах.
Бесплатная доска объявлений: для чего она нужна? Бесплатные объявления о продаже, поиск и предложение работы, вакансии, предоставлении услуг или покупке размещают как физические лица и индивидуальные предприниматели, так и компании сферы малого бизнеса. Бесплатные доски объявлений предлагают, как правило, единичные товары, реже розничную или оптовую продажу партий товаров.
Бесплатные объявления о покупке и продаже разбиты по рубрикам. На нашей доске вы найдете информацию, такую как: вакансии , работа , недвижимость,а так же многое другое.
Чем хороши доски объявлений?
Тем, что их много. Представьте, что вы разместили свое объявление на 500 досок. Допустим что, на каждое Ваше объявление с каждой доски откликнулся хотя бы один человек (в действительности это число больше в зависимости от тематики объявления). Вы получаете сразу 500 потенциальных посетителей (партнеров, клиентов и тп) Конечно, размещать одно объявление на каждую из досок объявлений - довольно долгий и трудоёмкий процесс. Но зато Ваше объявление может находиться на доске объявлений длительный срок и привести немало потенциальных клиентов.
Доски объявлений - это еще и огромный массив информации, который индексируется поисковиками. Чем больше ваших объявлений размещено на различных досках объявлений, тем более высока вероятность попадания посетителя на ваш сайт по запросу из поисковой системы. К тому же, если у Вас есть собственный сайт, объявления содержащие адрес хорошо влияют на позиции сайта в выдаче по целевым запросам.
Используйте доски объявлений - это хороший и быстрый способ рекламы своего бизнеса, тем более не требующий никаких вложений (конечно, если все делать самому!)

[url=http://yaneks.ru]доска объявлений сантехника[/url]

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Date: 2011-07-25 04:49 am (UTC)
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Date: 2011-08-08 06:27 pm (UTC)
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